In Russia, copyright issues are governed by Part IV of the Russian Civil Code ("CC") that became effective on January 1, 2008. It replaced the 1993 copyright law which, in turn, drew heavily upon provisions of the conventions of Berne and Rome regarding copyright and neighboring rights and the model laws of World Intellectual Property Organization ("WIPO"). Part IV of the CC establishes a comprehensive legal framework governing intellectual property (IP) issues, however, in many substantive respects its provisions that are applicable to copyright are similar to the provisions of its predecessor 1993 Russian copyright law. Chapter 69 of the CC sets out general provisions applicable to IP, including copyright. Chapter 70 deals with copyright (called "author's right") and Chapter 71 deals with neighboring rights such as rights to phonograms and broadcasting, as well as scientific works (neighboring rights are outside the scope of this analysis).